#### Analysis of the SORAS domain decomposition preconditioner for non-self-adjoint or indefinite problems | 2020

**Marcella BonazzoliXavier ClaeysFrédéric NatafPierre-Henri Tournier**

We analyze the convergence of the one-level overlapping domain decomposition preconditioner SORAS (Symmetrized Optimized Restricted Additive Schwarz) applied to a generic linear system whose matrix is not necessarily symmetric/self-adjoint nor positive definite. By generalizing the theory for the Helmholtz equation developed in [I.G. Graham, E.A. Spence, and J. Zou, SIAM J.Numer.Anal., 2020], we identify a list of assumptions and estimates that are sufficient to obtain an upper bound on the norm of the preconditioned matrix, and a lower bound on the distance of its field of values from the origin. We stress that our theory is general in the sense that it is not specific to one particular boundary value problem. Moreover, it does not rely on a coarse mesh whose elements are sufficiently small. As an illustration of this framework, we prove new estimates for overlapping domain decomposition methods with Robin-type transmission conditions for the heterogeneous reaction-convection-diffusion equation.

#### Applying a Chebyshev collocation method based on domain decomposition for calculating underwater sound propagation in a horizontally stratified environment | 2020

**Houwang TuYongxian WangQiang LanWei LiuWenbin XiaoShuqing Ma**

The propagation of sound waves in a horizontally stratified environment, a classical problem in ocean acoustics, has traditionally been calculated using normal modes. Most programs based on the normal mode model are discretized using the finite difference method (FDM). This paper proposes a Chebyshev collocation method (CCM) based on domain decomposition to solve this problem. A set of collocation points cannot penetrate two layers of media, thus necessitating domain decomposition and the use of two sets of collocation points. The solution process of this method proceeds entirely in physical space, requiring that the original differential equation be strictly established at the collocation points; thus, a dense matrix eigenvalue problem is formed, from which the solution for the horizontal wavenumbers and modes can be directly obtained. Numerical experiments are presented to demonstrate the validity and applicability of this method. A comparison with other methods shows that the CCM proposed in this article is slightly slower but more accurate than the FDM, while it offers roughly the same accuracy but a faster speed than other types of spectral methods.

#### An efficient epistemic uncertainty quantification algorithm for a class of stochastic models: A post-processing and domain decomposition framework | 2020

**Mahadevan GaneshStuart C HawkinsAlexandre TartakovskyRamakrishna Tipireddy**

Partial differential equations (PDEs) are fundamental for theoretically describing numerous physical processes that are based on some input fields in spatial configurations. Understanding the physical process, in general, requires computational modeling of the PDE. Uncertainty in the computational model manifests through lack of precise knowledge of the input field or configuration. Uncertainty quantification (UQ) in the output physical process is typically carried out by modeling the uncertainty using a random field, governed by an appropriate covariance function. This leads to solving high-dimensional stochastic counterparts of the PDE computational models. Such UQ-PDE models require a large number of simulations of the PDE in conjunction with samples in the high-dimensional probability space, with probability distribution associated with the covariance function. Those UQ computational models having explicit knowledge of the covariance function are known as aleatoric UQ (AUQ) models. The lack of such explicit knowledge leads to epistemic UQ (EUQ) models, which typically require solution of a large number of AUQ models. In this article, using a surrogate, post-processing, and domain decomposition framework with coarse stochastic solution adaptation, we develop an offline/online algorithm for efficiently simulating a class of EUQ-PDE models.

#### Robust linear domain decomposition schemes for reduced non-linear fracture flow models | 2020

**Elyes AhmedAlessio FumagalliAna BudišaEirik KeilegavlenJan Martin NordbottenFlorin Adrian Radu**

In this work, we consider compressible single-phase flow problems in a porous media containing a fracture. In the latter, a non-linear pressure-velocity relation is prescribed. Using a non-overlapping domain decomposition procedure, we reformulate the global problem into a non-linear interface problem. We then introduce two new algorithms that are able to efficiently handle the non-linearity and the coupling between the fracture and the matrix, both based on linearization by the so-called L-scheme. The first algorithm, named MoLDD, uses the L-scheme to resolve the non-linearity, requiring at each iteration to solve the dimensional coupling via a domain decomposition approach. The second algorithm, called ItLDD, uses a sequential approach in which the dimensional coupling is part of the linearization iterations. For both algorithms, the computations are reduced only to the fracture by pre-computing, in an offline phase, a multiscale flux basis (the linear Robin-to-Neumann co-dimensional map), that represent the flux exchange between the fracture and the matrix. We present extensive theoretical findings and in particular, the stability and the convergence of both schemes are obtained, where user given parameters are optimized to minimise the number of iterations. Examples on two important fracture models are computed with the library PorePy and agree with the developed theory.

#### Adaptive greedy algorithms based on parameter-domain decomposition and reconstruction for the reduced basis method | 2020

**Jiahua JiangYanlai Chen**

The reduced basis method (RBM) empowers repeated and rapid evaluation of parametrized partial differential equations through an offline-online decomposition, a.k.a. a learning-execution process. A key feature of the method is a greedy algorithm repeatedly scanning the training set, a fine discretization of the parameter domain, to identify the next dimension of the parameter-induced solution manifold along which we expand the surrogate solution space. Although successfully applied to problems with fairly high parametric dimensions, the challenge is that this scanning cost dominates the offline cost due to it being proportional to the cardinality of the training set which is exponential with respect to the parameter dimension. In this work, we review three recent attempts in effectively delaying this curse of dimensionality, and propose two new hybrid strategies through successive refinement and multilevel maximization of the error estimate over the training set. All five offline-enhanced methods and the original greedy algorithm are tested and compared on {two types of problems: the thermal block problem and the geometrically parameterized Helmholtz problem.

#### A diagonal sweeping domain decomposition method with source transfer for the Helmholtz equation | 2020

**Wei LengLili Ju**

In this paper, we propose and test a novel diagonal sweeping domain decomposition method (DDM) with source transfer for solving the high-frequency Helmholtz equation in $\mathbb{R}^n$. In the method the computational domain is partitioned into overlapping checkerboard subdomains for source transfer with the perfectly matched layer (PML) technique, then a set of diagonal sweeps over the subdomains are specially designed to solve the system efficiently. The method improves the additive overlapping DDM (W. Leng and L. Ju, 2019) and the L-sweeps method (M. Taus, et al., 2019) by employing a more efficient subdomain solving order. We show that the method achieves the exact solution of the global PML problem with $2^n$ sweeps in the constant medium case. Although the sweeping usually implies sequential subdomain solves, the number of sequential steps required for each sweep in the method is only proportional to the $n$-th root of the number of subdomains when the domain decomposition is quasi-uniform with respect to all directions, thus it is very suitable for parallel computing of the Helmholtz problem with multiple right-hand sides through the pipeline processing. Extensive numerical experiments in two and three dimensions are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed method.

#### A general framework for substructuring-based domain decomposition methods for models having nonlocal interactions | 2020

**Giacomo CapodaglioMarta D'EliaMax GunzburgerPavel BochevManuel KlarChristian Vollmann**

A rigorous mathematical framework is provided for a substructuring-based domain-decomposition approach for nonlocal problems that feature interactions between points separated by a finite distance. Here, by substructuring it is meant that a traditional geometric configuration for local partial differential equation problems is used in which a computational domain is subdivided into non-overlapping subdomains. In the nonlocal setting, this approach is substructuring-based in the sense that those subdomains interact with neighboring domains over interface regions having finite volume, in contrast to the local PDE setting in which interfaces are lower dimensional manifolds separating abutting subdomains. Key results include the equivalence between the global, single-domain nonlocal problem and its multi-domain reformulation, both at the continuous and discrete levels. These results provide the rigorous foundation necessary for the development of efficient solution strategies for nonlocal domain-decomposition methods.

#### A global-in-time domain decomposition method for the coupled nonlinear Stokes and Darcy flows | 2020

**Thi-Thao-Phuong HoangHyesuk Lee**

We study a decoupling iterative algorithm based on domain decomposition for the time-dependent nonlinear Stokes-Darcy model, in which different time steps can be used in the flow region and in the porous medium. The coupled system is formulated as a space-time interface problem based on the interface condition for mass conservation. The nonlinear interface problem is then solved by a nested iteration approach which involves, at each Newton iteration, the solution of a linearized interface problem and, at each Krylov iteration, parallel solution of time-dependent linearized Stokes and Darcy problems. Consequently, local discretizations in time (and in space) can be used to efficiently handle multiphysics systems of coupled equations evolving at different temporal scales. Numerical results with nonconforming time grids are presented to illustrate the performance of the proposed method.

#### A non-iterative domain decomposition method for the interaction between a fluid and a thick structure | 2020

**Anyastassia SeboldtMartina Bukač**

This work focuses on the development and analysis of a partitioned numerical method for moving domain, fluid-structure interaction problems. We model the fluid using incompressible Navier-Stokes equations, and the structure using linear elasticity equations. We assume that the structure is thick, i.e., described in the same dimension as the fluid. We propose a non-iterative, domain decomposition method where the fluid and the structure sub-problems are solved separately. The method is based on generalized Robin boundary conditions, which are used in both fluid and structure sub-problems. Using energy estimates, we show that the proposed method applied to a moving domain problem is unconditionally stable. We also analyze the convergence of the method and show $\mathcal{O}(\Delta t^\frac12)$ convergence in time and optimal convergence in space. Numerical examples are used to demonstrate the performance of the method. In particular, we explore the relation between the combination parameter used in the derivation of the generalized Robin boundary conditions and the accuracy of the scheme. We also compare the performance of the method to a monolithic solver.

#### On condition numbers of symmetric and nonsymmetric domain decomposition methods | 2020

**Juan Galvis**

Using oblique projections and angles between subspaces we write condition number estimates for abstract nonsymmetric domain decomposition methods. In particular, we consider a restricted additive method for the Poisson equation and write a bound for the condition number of the preconditioned operator. We also obtain the non-negativity of the preconditioned operator. Condition number estimates are not enough for the convergence of iterative methods such as GMRES but these bounds may lead to further understanding of nonsymmetric domain decomposition methods.

#### Analysis of the Schwarz domain decomposition method for the conductor-like screening continuum model | 2020

**Arnold ReuskenBenjamin Stamm**

We study the Schwarz overlapping domain decomposition method applied to the Poisson problem on a special family of domains, which by construction consist of a union of a large number of fixed-size subdomains. These domains are motivated by applications in computational chemistry where the subdomains consist of van der Waals balls. As is usual in the theory of domain decomposition methods, the rate of convergence of the Schwarz method is related to a stable subspace decomposition. We derive such a stable decomposition for this family of domains and analyze how the stability "constant" depends on relevant geometric properties of the domain. For this, we introduce new descriptors that are used to formalize the geometry for the family of domains. We show how, for an increasing number of subdomains, the rate of convergence of the Schwarz method depends on specific local geometry descriptors and on one global geometry descriptor. The analysis also naturally provides lower bounds in terms of the descriptors for the smallest eigenvalue of the Laplace eigenvalue problem for this family of domains.

#### A diagonal sweeping domain decomposition method with trace transfer for the Helmholtz equation | 2020

**Wei LengLili Ju**

In this paper, the diagonal sweeping domain decomposition method (DDM) for solving the high-frequency Helmholtz equation in $\mathbb{R}^n$ is re-proposed with the trace transfer method, where $n$ is the dimension. The diagonal sweeping DDM uses $2^n$ sweeps of diagonal directions on the checkerboard domain decomposition based on the source transfer method, it is sequential in nature yet suitable for parallel computing, since the number of sequential steps is quite small compared to the number of subdomains. The advantages of changing the basic transfer method from source transfer to trace transfer are as follows: first, no overlapping region is required in the domain decomposition; second, the sweeping algorithm becomes simpler since the transferred traces have only $n$ cardinal directions, whereas the transferred sources have all $3^n-1$ directions. We proved that the exact solution is obtained with the proposed method in the constant medium case, and also in the two-layered medium case provided the source is on the same side with the first swept subdomain. The efficiency of the proposed method is demonstrated using numerical experiments in two and three dimensions, and it is found that numerical differences of the diagonal sweeping DDM with the two transfer methods are very small using second-order finite difference discretization.

#### A domain decomposition method for Isogeometric multi-patch problems with inexact local solvers | 2020

**Michal BosyMonica MontardiniGiancarlo SangalliMattia Tani**

In Isogeometric Analysis, the computational domain is often described as multi-patch, where each patch is given by a tensor product spline/NURBS parametrization. In this work we propose a FETI-like solver where local inexact solvers exploit the tensor product structure at the patch level. To this purpose, we extend to the isogeometric framework the so-called All-Floating variant of FETI, that allows us to use the Fast Diagonalization method at the patch level. We construct then a preconditioner for the whole system and prove its robustness with respect to the local mesh-size $h$ and patch-size $H$ (i.e., we have scalability). Our numerical tests confirm the theory and also show a favourable dependence of the computational cost of the method from the spline degree $p$.

#### Balancing domain decomposition by constraints associated with subobjects | 2020

**Santiago BadiaAlberto F. MartínHieu Nguyen**

A simple variant of the BDDC preconditioner in which constraints are imposed on a selected set of subobjects (subdomain subedges, subfaces and vertices between pairs of subedges) is presented. We are able to show that the condition number of the preconditioner is bounded by $C \big(1+\log (L/h)\big)^2$, where $C$ is a constant, and $h$ and $L$ are the characteristic sizes of the mesh and the subobjects, respectively. As $L$ can be chosen almost freely, the condition number can theoretically be as small as $O(1)$. We will discuss the pros and cons of the preconditioner and its application to heterogeneous problems. Numerical results on supercomputers are provided.

#### Analysis of a Sinclair-type domain decomposition solver for atomistic/continuum coupling | 2019

**M. Hodapp**

The "flexible boundary condition method", introduced by Sinclair and coworkers in the 1970s, remains among the most popular methods for simulating isolated two-dimensional crystalline defects, embedded in an effectively infinite atomistic domain. In essence, the method can be characterized as a domain decomposition method which iterates between a local anharmonic and a global harmonic problem, where the latter is solved by means of the lattice Green function of the ideal crystal. This local/global splitting gives rise to tremendously improved convergence rates over related alternating Schwarz methods. In a previous publication (Hodapp et al., 2019, Comput. Methods in Appl. Mech. Eng. 348), we have shown that this method also applies to large-scale three-dimensional problems, possibly involving hundreds of thousands of atoms, using fast summation techniques exploiting the low-rank nature of the asymptotic lattice Green function. Here, we generalize the Sinclair method to bounded domains using a discrete boundary element method to correct the infinite solution with respect to a prescribed far-field condition, thus preserving the advantage of the original method of not requiring a global spatial discretization. Moreover, we present a detailed convergence analysis and show for a one-dimensional problem that the method is unconditionally stable under physically motivated assumptions. To further improve the convergence behavior, we develop an acceleration technique based on a relaxation of the transmission conditions between the two subproblems. Numerical examples for linear and nonlinear problems are presented to validate the proposed methodology.

#### On the Dirichlet-to-Neumann coarse space for solving the Helmholtz problem using domain decomposition | 2019

**Niall BootlandVictorita Dolean**

We examine the use of the Dirichlet-to-Neumann coarse space within an additive Schwarz method to solve the Helmholtz equation in 2D. In particular, we focus on the selection of how many eigenfunctions should go into the coarse space. We find that wave number independent convergence of a preconditioned iterative method can be achieved in certain special cases with an appropriate and novel choice of threshold in the selection criteria. However, this property is lost in a more general setting, including the heterogeneous problem. Nonetheless, the approach converges in a small number of iterations for the homogeneous problem even for relatively large wave numbers and is robust to the number of subdomains used.

#### Spectral domain decomposition method for physically-based rendering of Royaumont abbey | 2019

**Guillaume Gbikpi-BenissanPatrick CalletFrederic Magoules**

In the context of a virtual reconstitution of the destroyed Royaumont abbey church, this paper investigates computer sciences issues intrinsic to the physically-based image rendering. First, a virtual model was designed from historical sources and archaeological descriptions. Then some materials physical properties were measured on remains of the church and on pieces from similar ancient churches. We specify the properties of our lighting source which is a representation of the sun, and present the rendering algorithm implemented in our software Virtuelium. In order to accelerate the computation of the interactions between light-rays and objects, this ray-tracing algorithm is parallelized by means of domain decomposition techniques. Numerical experiments show that the computational time saved by a classic parallelization is much less significant than that gained with our approach.

#### Spectral domain decomposition method for physically-based rendering of photochromic/electrochromic glass windows | 2019

**Guillaume Gbikpi-BenissanPatrick CalletFrederic Magoules**

This paper covers the time consuming issues intrinsic to physically-based image rendering algorithms. First, glass materials optical properties were measured on samples of real glasses and other objects materials inside an hotel room were characterized by deducing spectral data from multiple trichromatic images. We then present the rendering model and ray-tracing algorithm implemented in Virtuelium, an open source software. In order to accelerate the computation of the interactions between light rays and objects, the ray-tracing algorithm is parallelized by means of domain decomposition method techniques. Numerical experiments show that the speedups obtained with classical parallelization techniques are significantly less significant than those achieved with parallel domain decomposition methods.

#### Beam-tracing domain decomposition method for urban acoustic pollution | 2019

**Guillaume Gbikpi-BenissanFrederic Magoules**

This paper covers the fast solution of large acoustic problems on low-resources parallel platforms. A domain decomposition method is coupled with a dynamic load balancing scheme to efficiently accelerate a geometrical acoustic method. The geometrical method studied implements a beam-tracing method where intersections are handled as in a ray-tracing method. Beyond the distribution of the global processing upon multiple sub-domains, a second parallelization level is operated by means of multi-threading and shared memory mechanisms. Numerical experiments show that this method allows to handle large scale open domains for parallel computing purposes on few machines. Urban acoustic pollution arrising from car traffic was simulated on a large model of the Shinjuku district of Tokyo, Japan. The good speed-up results illustrate the performance of this new domain decomposition method.

#### A posteriori error analysis for Schwarz overlapping domain decomposition methods | 2019

**Jehanzeb ChaudhryDon EstepSimon Tavener**

Domain decomposition methods are widely used for the numerical solution of partial differential equations on high performance computers. We develop an adjoint-based a posteriori error analysis for both multiplicative and additive overlapping Schwarz domain decomposition methods. The numerical error in a user-specified functional of the solution (quantity of interest) is decomposed into contributions that arise as a result of the finite iteration between the subdomains and from the spatial discretization. The spatial discretization contribution is further decomposed into contributions arising from each subdomain. This decomposition of the numerical error is used to construct a two stage solution strategy that efficiently reduces the error in the quantity of interest by adjusting the relative contributions to the error.

#### A Galerkin-Collocation domain decomposition method: application to the evolution of cylindrical gravitational waves | 2019

**W. O. BarretoJ. A. CrespoH. P. de OliveiraE. L. Rodrigues**

We present a Galerkin-Collocation domain decomposition algorithm applied to the evolution of cylindrical unpolarized gravitational waves. We show the effectiveness of the algorithm in reproducing initial data with high localized gradients and in providing highly accurate dynamics. We characterize the gravitational radiation with the standard Newman-Penrose Weyl scalar $\Psi_4$. We generate wave templates for both polarization modes, $\times$ and $+$, outgoing and ingoing, to show how they exchange energy nonlinearly. In particular, considering an initially ingoing $\times$ wave, we were able to trace a possible imprint of the gravitational analog of the Faraday effect in the generated templates.

#### D3M: A deep domain decomposition method for partial differential equations | 2019

**Ke LiKejun TangTianfan WuQifeng Liao**

A state-of-the-art deep domain decomposition method (D3M) based on the variational principle is proposed for partial differential equations (PDEs). The solution of PDEs can be formulated as the solution of a constrained optimization problem, and we design a multi-fidelity neural network framework to solve this optimization problem. Our contribution is to develop a systematical computational procedure for the underlying problem in parallel with domain decomposition. Our analysis shows that the D3M approximation solution converges to the exact solution of underlying PDEs. Our proposed framework establishes a foundation to use variational deep learning in large-scale engineering problems and designs. We present a general mathematical framework of D3M, validate its accuracy and demonstrate its efficiency with numerical experiments.

#### A domain decomposition preconditioning for the integral equation formulation of the inverse scattering problem | 2019

**Carlos BorgesGeorge Biros**

We propose domain decomposition preconditioners for the solution of an integral equation formulation of forward and inverse acoustic scattering problems with point scatterers. We study both forward and inverse problems and propose preconditioning techniques to accelerate the iterative solvers. For the forward scattering problem, we extend the domain decomposition based preconditioning techniques presented for partial differential equations in {\em "A restricted additive Schwarz preconditioner for general sparse linear systems", SIAM Journal on Scientific Computing, 21 (1999), pp. 792--797}, to integral equations. We combine this domain decomposition preconditioner with a low-rank correction, which is easy to construct, forming a new preconditioner. For the inverse scattering problem, we use the forward problem preconditioner as a building block for constructing a preconditioner for the Gauss-Newton Hessian. We present numerical results that demonstrate the performance of both preconditioning strategies.

#### Splitting-based domain decomposition methods for two-phase flow with different rock types | 2019

**Elyes Ahmed**

In this paper, we are concerned with the global pressure formulation of immiscible incompressible two-phase flow between different rock types. We develop for this problem two robust schemes based on domain decomposition (DD) methods and operator-splitting techniques. The first scheme follows a sequential procedure in which the (global) pressure, the saturation-advection and the saturation-diffusion problems are fully decoupled. In this scheme, each problem is treated individually using various DD approaches and specialized numerical methods. The coupling between the different problems is explicit and the time-marching is with no iterations. To adapt to different time scales of problem components and different rock types, the novel scheme uses a multirate time stepping strategy, by taking multiple finer time steps for saturation-advection within one coarse time step for saturation-diffusion and pressure, and permits independent time steps for the advection step in the different rocks. In the second scheme, we review the classical Implicit Pressure--Explicit Saturation (IMPES) method (by decoupling only pressure and saturation) in the context of multirate coupling schemes and nonconforming-in-time DD approaches. For the discretization, the saturation-advection problem is approximated with the explicit Euler method in time, and in space with the cell-centered finite volume method of first order of Godunov type. The saturation-diffusion problem is approximated in time with the implicit Euler method and in space with the mixed finite element method, as in the pressure problem. Finally, in a series of numerical experiments, we investigate the practicality of the proposed schemes, the accuracy-in-time of the multirate and nonconforming time strategies, and compare the convergence of various DD methods within each approach.

#### A pure source transfer domain decomposition method for Helmholtz equations in unbounded domain | 2019

**Yu DuHaijun Wu**

We propose a pure source transfer domain decomposition method (PSTDDM) for solving the truncated perfectly matched layer (PML) approximation in bounded domain of Helmholtz scattering problem. The method is a modification of the STDDM proposed by [Z. Chen and X. Xiang, SIAM J. Numer. Anal., 51 (2013), pp. 2331--2356]. After decomposing the domain into $N$ non-overlapping layers, the STDDM is composed of two series steps of sources transfers and wave expansions, where $N-1$ truncated PML problems on two adjacent layers and $N-2$ truncated half-space PML problems are solved successively. While the PSTDDM consists merely of two parallel source transfer steps in two opposite directions, and in each step $N-1$ truncated PML problems on two adjacent layers are solved successively. One benefit of such a modification is that the truncated PML problems on two adjacent layers can be further solved by the PSTDDM along directions parallel to the layers. And therefore, we obtain a block-wise PSTDDM on the decomposition composed of $N^2$ squares, which reduces the size of subdomain problems and is more suitable for large-scale problems. Convergences of both the layer-wise PSTDDM and the block-wise PSTDDM are proved for the case of constant wave number. Numerical examples are included to show that the PSTDDM gives good approximations to the discrete Helmholtz equations with constant wave numbers and can be used as an efficient preconditioner in the preconditioned GMRES method for solving the discrete Helmholtz equations with constant and heterogeneous wave numbers.

#### A scalable multilevel domain decomposition preconditioner with a subspace-based coarsening algorithm for the neutron transport calculations | 2019

**Fande KongYaqi WangDerek R. GastonAlexander D. LindsayCody J. PermannRichard C. Martineau**

The multigroup neutron transport equations has been widely used to study the interactions of neutrons with their background materials in nuclear reactors. High-resolution simulations of the multigroup neutron transport equations using modern supercomputers require the development of scalable parallel solving techniques. In this paper, we study a scalable transport method for solving the algebraic system arising from the discretization of the multigroup neutron transport equations. The proposed transport method consists of a fully coupled Newton solver for the generalized eigenvalue problems and GMRES together with a novel multilevel domain decomposition preconditioner for the Jacobian system. The multilevel preconditioner has been successfully used for many problems, but the construction of coarse spaces for certain problems, especially for unstructured mesh problems, is expensive and often unscalable. We introduce a new subspace-based coarsening algorithm to address this issue by exploring the structure of the matrix in the discretized version of the neutron transport problems. We numerically demonstrate that the proposed transport method is highly scalable with more than 10,000 processor cores for the 3D C5G7 benchmark problem on unstructured meshes with billions of unknowns. Compared with the traditional multilevel domain decomposition method, the new approach equipped with the subspace-based coarsening algorithm is much faster on the construction of coarse spaces.

#### Natural domain decomposition algorithms for the solution of time-harmonic elastic waves | 2019

**Romain BrunetVictorita DoleanMartin J. Gander**

We study for the first time Schwarz domain decomposition methods for the solution of the Navier equations modeling the propagation of elastic waves. These equations in the time harmonic regime are difficult to solve by iterative methods, even more so than the Helmholtz equation. We first prove that the classical Schwarz method is not convergent when applied to the Navier equations, and can thus not be used as an iterative solver, only as a preconditioner for a Krylov method. We then introduce more natural transmission conditions between the subdomains, and show that if the overlap is not too small, this new Schwarz method is convergent. We illustrate our results with numerical experiments, both for situations covered by our technical two subdomain analysis, and situations that go far beyond, including many subdomains, cross points, heterogeneous materials in a transmission problem, and Krylov acceleration. Our numerical results show that the Schwarz method with adapted transmission conditions leads systematically to a better solver for the Navier equations than the classical Schwarz method.

#### Combined use of mixed and hybrid finite elements method with domain decomposition and spectral methods for a study of renormalization for the KPZ model | 2019

**Ciro Diaz**

The focus of this work is the numerical approximation of time-dependent partial differential equations associated to initial-boundary value problems. This master dissertation is mostly concerned with the actual computation of the solution to nonlinear stochastic evolution problems governed by Kardar-Parisi-Zhang (KPZ) models. In addition, the dissertation aims to contribute to corroborate, by means of a large set of numerical experiments, that the initial-boundary value problem with periodic boundary conditions for the equation KPZ is ill-posed and that such equation needs to be renormalized. The approach to discretization of KPZ equation perfomed by means of the use of hybrid and mixed finite elements with a domain decomposition procedure along with a pertinent mollification of the noise. The obtained solution is compared with the well known solution given by the Cole-Hopf transformation of the stochastic heat equation with multiplicative noise. We were able to verify that both solutions exhibit a good agreement, but there is a shift that grows as the support of the mollifier decreases. For the numerical aproximation of the stochastic heat equation we use a state-of-the-art numerical method for evaluating semilinear stochastic PDE , which in turn combine spectral techniques, Taylor's expantions and particular numerical treatment to the underlying noise. Furthermore, a state-of-the-art renormalization procedure introduced by Martin Hairer is used to renormalize KPZ equation that is validated with nontrivial numerical experiments.

#### An iterative domain decomposition, spectral finite element method on non-conforming meshes suitable for high frequency Helmholtz problems | 2018

**Ryan GalaguszSteve McFee**

The purpose of this research is to describe an efficient iterative method suitable for obtaining high accuracy solutions to high frequency time-harmonic scattering problems. The method allows for both refinement of local polynomial degree and non-conforming mesh refinement, including multiple hanging nodes per edge. Rather than globally assemble the finite element system, we describe an iterative domain decomposition method which can use element-wise fast solvers for elements of large degree. Since continuity between elements is enforced through moment equations, the resulting constraint equations are hierarchical. We show that, for high frequency problems, a subset of these constraints should be directly enforced, providing the coarse space in the dual-primal domain decomposition method. The subset of constraints is chosen based on a dispersion criterion involving mesh size and wavenumber. By increasing the size of the coarse space according to this criterion, the number of iterations in the domain decomposition method depends only weakly on the wavenumber. We demonstrate this convergence behaviour on standard domain decomposition test problems and conclude the paper with application of the method to electromagnetic problems in two dimensions. These examples include beam steering by lenses and photonic crystal waveguides, as well as radar cross section computation for dielectric, perfect electric conductor, and electromagnetic cloak scatterers.

#### An immersed boundary method for fluid-structure interaction based on overlapping domain decomposition | 2018

**Maria Giuseppina Chiara NestolaBarna BecsekHadi ZolfaghariPatrick ZulianDario De MarinisRolf KrauseDominik Obrist**

We present a novel framework inspired by the Immersed Boundary Method for predicting the fluid-structure interaction of complex structures immersed in flows with moderate to high Reynolds numbers. The main novelties of the proposed fluid-structure interaction framework are 1) the use of elastodynamics equations for the structure, 2) the use of a high-order Navier-Stokes solver for the flow, and 3) the variational transfer (L2-projection) for coupling the solid and fluid subproblems. The dynamic behavior of a deformable structure is simulated in a finite element framework by adopting a fully implicit scheme for its temporal integration. It allows for mechanical constitutive laws including nonhomogeneous and fiber-reinforced materials. The Navier-Stokes equations for the incompressible flow are discretized with high-order finite differences which allow for the direct numerical simulation of laminar, transitional and turbulent flows. The structure and the flow solvers are coupled by using an L2-projection method for the transfer of velocities and forces between the fluid grid and the solid mesh. This strategy allows for the numerical solution of coupled large scale problems based on nonconforming structured and unstructured grids. The framework is validated with the Turek-Hron benchmark and a newly proposed benchmark modelling the flow-induced oscillation of an inert plate. A three-dimensional simulation of an elastic beam in transitional flow is provided to show the solver's capability of coping with anisotropic elastic structures immersed in complex fluid flow.

#### A belief propagation algorithm based on domain decomposition | 2018

**Brad Lackey**

This note provides a detailed description and derivation of the domain decomposition algorithm that appears in previous works by the author. Given a large re-estimation problem, domain decomposition provides an iterative method for assembling Boltzmann distributions associated to small subproblems into an approximation of the Bayesian posterior of the whole problem. The algorithm is amenable to using Boltzmann sampling to approximate these Boltzmann distributions. In previous work, we have shown the capability of heuristic versions of this algorithm to solve LDPC decoding and circuit fault diagnosis problems too large to fit on quantum annealing hardware used for sampling. Here, we rigorously prove soundness of the method.

#### Four-dimensional tomographic reconstruction by time domain decomposition | 2018

**Viktor V. NikitinMarcus CarlssonFredrik AnderssonRajmund Mokso**

Since the beginnings of tomography, the requirement that the sample does not change during the acquisition of one tomographic rotation is unchanged. We derived and successfully implemented a tomographic reconstruction method which relaxes this decades-old requirement of static samples. In the presented method, dynamic tomographic data sets are decomposed in the temporal domain using basis functions and deploying an L1 regularization technique where the penalty factor is taken for spatial and temporal derivatives. We implemented the iterative algorithm for solving the regularization problem on modern GPU systems to demonstrate its practical use.

#### A monolithic approach to fluid-structure interaction based on a hybrid Eulerian-ALE fluid domain decomposition involving cut elements | 2018

**Benedikt SchottChristoph AgerWolfgang A. Wall**

A novel method for complex fluid-structure interaction (FSI) involving large structural deformation and motion is proposed. The new approach is based on a hybrid fluid formulation that combines the advantages of purely Eulerian (fixed-grid) and Arbitrary-Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE moving mesh) formulations in the context of FSI. The structure - as commonly given in Lagrangian description - is surrounded by a fine resolved layer of fluid elements based on an ALE-framework. This ALE-fluid patch, which is embedded in an Eulerian background fluid domain, follows the deformation and motion of the structural interface. This approximation technique is not limited to Finite Element Methods, but can can also be realized within other frameworks like Finite Volume or Discontinuous Galerkin Methods. In this work, the surface coupling between the two disjoint fluid subdomains is imposed weakly using a stabilized Nitsche's technique in a Cut Finite Element Method (CutFEM) framework. At the fluid-solid interface, standard weak coupling of node-matching or non-matching finite element approximations can be utilized. As the fluid subdomains can be meshed independently, a sufficient mesh quality in the vicinity of the common fluid-structure interface can be assured. To our knowledge the proposed method is the only method (despite some overlapping domain decomposition approaches that suffer from other issues) that allows for capturing boundary layers and flow detachment via appropriate grids around largely moving and deforming bodies and is able to do this e.g. without the necessity of costly remeshing procedures. In addition it might also help to safe computational costs as now background grids can be much coarser. Various FSI-cases of rising complexity conclude the work.

#### Parallel SPH modeling using dynamic domain decomposition and load balancing displacement of Voronoi subdomains | 2018

**M. S. EgorovaS. A. DyachkovA. N. ParshikovV. V. Zhakhovsky**

A highly adaptive load balancing algorithm for parallel simulations using particle methods, such as molecular dynamics and smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH), is developed. Our algorithm is based on the dynamic spatial decomposition of simulated material samples between Voronoi subdomains, where each subdomain with all its particles is handled by a single computational process which is typically run on a single CPU core of a multiprocessor computing cluster. The algorithm displaces the positions of neighbor Voronoi subdomains in accordance with the local load imbalance between the corresponding processes. It results in particle transfers from heavy-loaded processes to less-loaded ones. Iteration of the algorithm puts into alignment the processor loads. Convergence to a well-balanced decomposition from imbalanced one is improved by the usage of multi-body terms in the balancing displacements. The high adaptability of the balancing algorithm to simulation conditions is illustrated by SPH modeling of the dynamic behavior of materials under extreme conditions, which are characterized by large pressure and velocity gradients, as a result of which the spatial distribution of particles varies greatly in time. The higher parallel efficiency of our algorithm in such conditions is demonstrated by comparison with the corresponding static decomposition of the computational domain. Our algorithm shows almost perfect strong scalability in tests using from tens to several thousand processes.

#### Galerkin-Collocation domain decomposition method for arbitrary binary black holes | 2018

**W. BarretoP. C. M. ClementeH. P. de OliveiraB. Rodriguez-Mueller**

We present a new computational framework for the Galerkin-collocation method for double domain in the context of ADM 3+1 approach in numerical relativity. This work enables us to perform high resolution calculations for initial sets of two arbitrary black holes. We use the Bowen-York method for binary systems and the puncture method to solve the Hamiltonian constraint. The nonlinear numerical code solves the set of equations for the spectral modes using the standard Newton-Raphson method, LU decomposition and Gaussian quadratures. We show convergence of our code for the conformal factor and the ADM mass. Thus, we display features of the conformal factor for different masses, spins and linear momenta.

#### Additive domain decomposition operator splittings -- convergence analyses in a dissipative framework | 2018

**Eskil HansenErik Henningsson**

We analyze temporal approximation schemes based on overlapping domain decompositions. As such schemes enable computations on parallel and distributed hardware, they are commonly used when integrating large-scale parabolic systems. Our analysis is conducted by first casting the domain decomposition procedure into a variational framework based on weighted Sobolev spaces. The time integration of a parabolic system can then be interpreted as an operator splitting scheme applied to an abstract evolution equation governed by a maximal dissipative vector field. By utilizing this abstract setting, we derive an optimal temporal error analysis for the two most common choices of domain decomposition based integrators. Namely, alternating direction implicit schemes and additive splitting schemes of first and second order. For the standard first-order additive splitting scheme we also extend the error analysis to semilinear evolution equations, which may only have mild solutions.

#### A linear domain decomposition method for two-phase flow in porous media | 2017

**David SeusFlorin A. RaduChristian Rohde**

This article is a follow up of our submitted paper [11] in which a decomposition of the Richards equation along two soil layers was discussed. A decomposed problem was formulated and a decoupling and linearisation technique was presented to solve the problem in each time step in a fixed point type iteration. This article extends these ideas to the case of two-phase in porous media and the convergence of the proposed domain decomposition method is rigorously shown.

#### Convergence estimates for multigrid algorithms with SSC smoothers and applications to overlapping domain decomposition | 2017

**Eugenio AulisaGiorgio BorniaSara CalandriniGiacomo Capodaglio**

In this paper we study convergence estimates for a multigrid algorithm with smoothers of successive subspace correction (SSC) type, applied to symmetric elliptic PDEs. First, we revisit a general convergence analysis on a class of multigrid algorithms in a fairly general setting, where no regularity assumptions are made on the solution. In this framework, we are able to explicitly highlight the dependence of the multigrid error bound on the number of smoothing steps. For the case of no regularity assumptions, this represents a new addition to the existing theory. Then, we analyze successive subspace correction smoothing schemes for a set of uniform and local refinement applications with either nested or non-nested overlapping subdomains. For these applications, we explicitly derive bounds for the multigrid error, and identify sufficient conditions for these bounds to be independent of the number of multigrid levels. For the local refinement applications, finite element grids with arbitrary hanging nodes configurations are considered. The analysis of these smoothing schemes is cast within the far-reaching multiplicative Schwarz framework.

#### Robust and scalable domain decomposition solvers for unfitted finite element methods | 2017

**Santiago BadiaFrancesc Verdugo**

Unfitted finite element methods, e.g., extended finite element techniques or the so-called finite cell method, have a great potential for large scale simulations, since they avoid the generation of body-fitted meshes and the use of graph partitioning techniques, two main bottlenecks for problems with non-trivial geometries. However, the linear systems that arise from these discretizations can be much more ill-conditioned, due to the so-called small cut cell problem. The state-of-the-art approach is to rely on sparse direct methods, which have quadratic complexity and are thus not well suited for large scale simulations. In order to solve this situation, in this work we investigate the use of domain decomposition preconditioners (balancing domain decomposition by constraints) for unfitted methods. We observe that a straightforward application of these preconditioners to the unfitted case has a very poor behavior. As a result, we propose a {customization} of the classical BDDC methods based on the stiffness weighting operator and an improved definition of the coarse degrees of freedom in the definition of the preconditioner. These changes lead to a robust and algorithmically scalable solver able to deal with unfitted grids. A complete set of complex 3D numerical experiments show the good performance of the proposed preconditioners.

#### Stochastic basis adaptation and spatial domain decomposition for PDEs with random coefficients | 2017

**Ramakrishna TipireddyPanos StinisAlexandre Tartakovsky**

We present a novel uncertainty quantification approach for high-dimensional stochastic partial differential equations that reduces the computational cost of polynomial chaos methods by decomposing the computational domain into non-overlapping subdomains and adapting the stochastic basis in each subdomain so the local solution has a lower dimensional random space representation. The local solutions are coupled using the Neumann-Neumann algorithm, where we first estimate the interface solution then evaluate the interior solution in each subdomain using the interface solution as a boundary condition. The interior solutions in each subdomain are computed independently of each other, which reduces the operation count from $O(N^\alpha)$ to $O(M^\alpha),$ where $N$ is the total number of degrees of freedom, $M$ is the number of degrees of freedom in each subdomain, and the exponent $\alpha>1$ depends on the uncertainty quantification method used. In addition, the localized nature of solutions makes the proposed approach highly parallelizable. We illustrate the accuracy and efficiency of the approach for linear and nonlinear differential equations with random coefficients.

#### Hybrid discontinuous Galerkin discretisation and domain decomposition preconditioners for the Stokes problem | 2017

**Gabriel R. BarrenecheaMichał BosyVictorita DoleanFrédéric NatafPierre-Henri Tournier**

Solving the Stokes equation by an optimal domain decomposition method derived algebraically involves the use of non standard interface conditions whose discretisation is not trivial. For this reason the use of approximation methods such as hybrid discontinuous Galerkin appears as an appropriate strategy: on the one hand they provide the best compromise in terms of the number of degrees of freedom in between standard continuous and discontinuous Galerkin methods, and on the other hand the degrees of freedom used in the non standard interface conditions are naturally defined at the boundary between elements. In this paper we introduce the coupling between a well chosen discretisation method (hybrid discontinuous Galerkin) and a novel and efficient domain decomposition method to solve the Stokes system. We present the detailed analysis of the hybrid discontinuous Galerkin method for the Stokes problem with non standard boundary conditions. This analysis is supported by numerical evidence. In addition, the advantage of the new preconditioners over more classical choices is also supported by numerical experiments.

#### A linear domain decomposition method for partially saturated flow in porous media | 2017

**David SeusKoondanibha MitraIuliu Sorin PopFlorin Adrian RaduChristian Rohde**

The Richards equation is a nonlinear parabolic equation that is commonly used for modelling saturated/unsaturated flow in porous media. We assume that the medium occupies a bounded Lipschitz domain partitioned into two disjoint subdomains separated by a fixed interface $\Gamma$. This leads to two problems defined on the subdomains which are coupled through conditions expressing flux and pressure continuity at $\Gamma$. After an Euler implicit discretisation of the resulting nonlinear subproblems a linear iterative ($L$-type) domain decomposition scheme is proposed. The convergence of the scheme is proved rigorously. In the last part we present numerical results that are in line with the theoretical finding, in particular the unconditional convergence of the scheme. We further compare the scheme to other approaches not making use of a domain decomposition. Namely, we compare to a Newton and a Picard scheme. We show that the proposed scheme is more stable than the Newton scheme while remaining comparable in computational time, even if no parallelisation is being adopted. Finally we present a parametric study that can be used to optimize the proposed scheme.

#### Convergence analysis of domain decomposition based time integrators for degenerate parabolic equations | 2017

**Monika EisenmannEskil Hansen**

Domain decomposition based time integrators allow the usage of parallel and distributed hardware, making them well-suited for the temporal discretization of parabolic systems, in general, and degenerate parabolic problems, in particular. The latter is due to the degenerate equations' finite speed of propagation. In this study, a rigours convergence analysis is given for such integrators without assuming any restrictive regularity on the solutions or the domains. The analysis is conducted by first deriving a new variational framework for the domain decomposition, which is applicable to the two standard degenerate examples. That is, the $p$-Laplace and the porous medium type vector fields. Secondly, the decomposed vector fields are restricted to the underlying pivot space and the time integration of the parabolic problem can then be interpreted as an operators splitting applied to a dissipative evolution equation. The convergence results then follow by employing elements of the approximation theory for nonlinear semigroups.

#### Numerical assessment of two-level domain decomposition preconditioners for incompressible Stokes and elasticity equations | 2017

**Gabriel R. BarrenecheaMichał BosyVictorita Dolean**

Solving the linear elasticity and Stokes equations by an optimal domain decomposition method derived algebraically involves the use of non standard interface conditions. The one-level domain decomposition preconditioners are based on the solution of local problems. This has the undesired consequence that the results are not scalable, it means that the number of iterations needed to reach convergence increases with the number of subdomains. This is the reason why in this work we introduce, and test numerically, two-level preconditioners. Such preconditioners use a coarse space in their construction. We consider the nearly incompressible elasticity problems and Stokes equations, and discretise them by using two finite element methods, namely, the hybrid discontinuous Galerkin and Taylor-Hood discretisations.

#### On overlapping domain decomposition methods for high-contrast multiscale problems | 2017

**Juan GalvisEric ChungYalchin EfendievWing Tat Leung**

We review some important ideas in the design and analysis of robust overlapping domain decomposition algorithms for high-contrast multiscale problems and propose a domain decomposition method better performance in terms of the number of iterations. The main novelty of our approaches is the construction of coarse spaces, which are computed using spectral information of local bilinear forms. We present several approaches to incorporate the spectral information into the coarse problem in order to obtain minimal coarse space dimension. We show that using these coarse spaces, we can obtain a domain decomposition preconditioner with the condition number independent of contrast and small scales. To minimize further the number of iterations until convergence, we use this minimal dimensional coarse spaces in a construction combining them with large overlap local problems that take advantage of the possibility of localizing global fields orthogonal to the coarse space. We obtain a condition number close to 1 for the new method. We discuss possible drawbacks and further extensions.

#### Two-component domain decomposition scheme with overlapping subdomains for parabolic equations | 2017

**Petr N. Vabishchevich**

An iteration-free method of domain decomposition is considered for approximate solving a boundary value problem for a second-order parabolic equation. A standard approach to constructing domain decomposition schemes is based on a partition of unity for the domain under the consideration. Here a new general approach is proposed for constructing domain decomposition schemes with overlapping subdomains based on indicator functions of subdomains. The basic peculiarity of this method is connected with a representation of the problem operator as the sum of two operators, which are constructed for two separate subdomains with the subtraction of the operator that is associated with the intersection of the subdomains. There is developed a two-component factorized scheme, which can be treated as a generalization of the standard Alternating Direction Implicit (ADI) schemes to the case of a special three-component splitting. There are obtained conditions for the unconditional stability of regionally additive schemes constructed using indicator functions of subdomains. Numerical results are presented for a model two-dimensional problem.

#### Coupling parallel adaptive mesh refinement with a nonoverlapping domain decomposition solver | 2017

**Pavel KůsJakub Šístek**

We study the effect of adaptive mesh refinement on a parallel domain decomposition solver of a linear system of algebraic equations. These concepts need to be combined within a parallel adaptive finite element software. A prototype implementation is presented for this purpose. It uses adaptive mesh refinement with one level of hanging nodes. Two and three-level versions of the Balancing Domain Decomposition based on Constraints (BDDC) method are used to solve the arising system of algebraic equations. The basic concepts are recalled and components necessary for the combination are studied in detail. Of particular interest is the effect of disconnected subdomains, a typical output of the employed mesh partitioning based on space-filling curves, on the convergence and solution time of the BDDC method. It is demonstrated using a large set of experiments that while both refined meshes and disconnected subdomains have a negative effect on the convergence of BDDC, the number of iterations remains acceptable. In addition, scalability of the three-level BDDC solver remains good on up to a few thousands of processor cores. The largest presented problem using adaptive mesh refinement has over 10^9 unknowns and is solved on 2048 cores.

#### Parallel energy-stable phase field crystal simulations based on domain decomposition methods | 2017

**Ying WeiChao YangJizu Huang**

In this paper, we present a parallel numerical algorithm for solving the phase field crystal equation. In the algorithm, a semi-implicit finite difference scheme is derived based on the discrete variational derivative method. Theoretical analysis is provided to show that the scheme is unconditionally energy stable and can achieve second-order accuracy in both space and time. An adaptive time step strategy is adopted such that the time step size can be flexibly controlled based on the dynamical evolution of the problem. At each time step, a nonlinear algebraic system is constructed from the discretization of the phase field crystal equation and solved by a domain decomposition based, parallel Newton--Krylov--Schwarz method with improved boundary conditions for subdomain problems. Numerical experiments with several two and three dimensional test cases show that the proposed algorithm is second-order accurate in both space and time, energy stable with large time steps, and highly scalable to over ten thousands processor cores on the Sunway TaihuLight supercomputer.

#### Nonoverlapping domain decomposition preconditioners for discontinuous Galerkin approximations of Hamilton--Jacobi--Bellman equations | 2017

**Iain Smears**

We analyse a class of nonoverlapping domain decomposition preconditioners for nonsymmetric linear systems arising from discontinuous Galerkin finite element approximation of fully nonlinear Hamilton--Jacobi--Bellman (HJB) partial differential equations. These nonsymmetric linear systems are uniformly bounded and coercive with respect to a related symmetric bilinear form, that is associated to a matrix $\mathbf{A}$. In this work, we construct a nonoverlapping domain decomposition preconditioner $\mathbf{P}$, that is based on $\mathbf{A}$, and we then show that the effectiveness of the preconditioner for solving the} nonsymmetric problems can be studied in terms of the condition number $\kappa(\mathbf{P}^{-1}\mathbf{A})$. In particular, we establish the bound $\kappa(\mathbf{P}^{-1}\mathbf{A}) \lesssim 1+ p^6 H^3 /q^3 h^3$, where $H$ and $h$ are respectively the coarse and fine mesh sizes, and $q$ and $p$ are respectively the coarse and fine mesh polynomial degrees. This represents the first such result for this class of methods that explicitly accounts for the dependence of the condition number on $q$; our analysis is founded upon an original optimal order approximation result between fine and coarse discontinuous finite element spaces. Numerical experiments demonstrate the sharpness of this bound. Although the preconditioners are not robust with respect to the polynomial degree, our bounds quantify the effect of the coarse and fine space polynomial degrees. Furthermore, we show computationally that these methods are effective in practical applications to nonsymmetric, fully nonlinear HJB equations under $h$-refinement for moderate polynomial degrees.

#### Space-time balancing domain decomposition | 2017

**Santiago BadiaMarc Olm**

In this work, we propose two-level space-time domain decomposition preconditioners for parabolic problems discretized using finite elements. They are motivated as an extension to space-time of balancing domain decomposition by constraints preconditioners. The key ingredients to be defined are the sub-assembled space and operator, the coarse degrees of freedom (DOFs) in which we want to enforce continuity among subdomains at the preconditioner level, and the transfer operator from the sub-assembled to the original finite element space. With regard to the sub-assembled operator, a perturbation of the time derivative is needed to end up with a well-posed preconditioner. The set of coarse DOFs includes the time average (at the space-time subdomain) of classical space constraints plus new constraints between consecutive subdomains in time. Numerical experiments show that the proposed schemes are weakly scalable in time, i.e., we can efficiently exploit increasing computational resources to solve more time steps in the same {total elapsed} time. Further, the scheme is also weakly space-time scalable, since it leads to asymptotically constant iterations when solving larger problems both in space and time. Excellent {wall clock} time weak scalability is achieved for space-time parallel solvers on some thousands of cores.

#### Nested domain decomposition with polarized traces for the 2D Helmholtz equation | 2016

**Leonardo Zepeda-NúñezLaurent Demanet**

We present a solver for the 2D high-frequency Helmholtz equation in heterogeneous, constant density, acoustic media, with online parallel complexity that scales empirically as $\mathcal{O}(\frac{N}{P})$, where $N$ is the number of volume unknowns, and $P$ is the number of processors, as long as $P = \mathcal{O}(N^{1/5})$. This sublinear scaling is achieved by domain decomposition, not distributed linear algebra, and improves on the $P =\mathcal{O}(N^{1/8})$ scaling reported earlier in [L. Zepeda-N\'u\~nez and L. Demanet, J. Comput. Phys., 308 (2016), pp. 347-388 ]. The solver relies on a two-level nested domain decomposition: a layered partition on the outer level, and a further decomposition of each layer in cells at the inner level. The Helmholtz equation is reduced to a surface integral equation (SIE) posed at the interfaces between layers, efficiently solved via a nested version of the polarized traces preconditioner [L. Zepeda-N\'u\~nez and L. Demanet, J. Comput. Phys., 308 (2016), pp. 347-388.]. The favorable complexity is achieved via an efficient application of the integral operators involved in the SIE.

#### Improved recovery of admissible stress in domain decomposition methods - application to heterogeneous structures and new error bounds for FETI-DP | 2016

**Augustin Parret-FréaudValentine ReyPierre GosseletChristian Rey**

This paper investigates the question of the building of admissible stress field in a substructured context. More precisely we analyze the special role played by multiple points. This study leads to (1) an improved recovery of the stress field, (2) an opportunity to minimize the estimator in the case of heterogeneous structures (in the parallel and sequential case), (3) a procedure to build admissible fields for FETI-DP and BDDC methods leading to an error bound which separates the contributions of the solver and of the discretization.

#### Basis adaptation and domain decomposition for steady partial differential equations with random coefficients | 2016

**Ramkrishna TipireddyPanos StinisAlexandre Tartakovsky**

We present a novel approach for solving steady-state stochastic partial differential equations (PDEs) with high-dimensional random parameter space. The proposed approach combines spatial domain decomposition with basis adaptation for each subdomain. The basis adaptation is used to address the curse of dimensionality by constructing an accurate low-dimensional representation of the stochastic PDE solution (probability density function and/or its leading statistical moments) in each subdomain. Restricting the basis adaptation to a specific subdomain affords finding a locally accurate solution. Then, the solutions from all of the subdomains are stitched together to provide a global solution. We support our construction with numerical experiments for a steady-state diffusion equation with a random spatially dependent coefficient. Our results show that highly accurate global solutions can be obtained with significantly reduced computational costs.

#### An improved sweeping domain decomposition preconditioner for the Helmholtz equation | 2016

**Christiaan C. Stolk**

In this paper we generalize and improve a recently developed domain decomposition preconditioner for the iterative solution of discretized Helmholtz equations. We introduce an improved method for transmission at the internal boundaries using perfectly matched layers. Simultaneous forward and backward sweeps are introduced, thereby improving the possibilities for parallellization. Finally, the method is combined with an outer two-grid iteration. The method is studied theoretically and with numerical examples. It is shown that the modifications lead to substantial decreases in computation time and memory use, so that computation times become comparable to that of the fastests methods currently in the literature for problems with up to 10^8 degrees of freedom.

#### Strict lower bounds with separation of sources of error in non-overlapping domain decomposition methods | 2016

**Valentine ReyPierre GosseletChristian Rey**

This article deals with the computation of guaranteed lower bounds of the error in the framework of finite element (FE) and domain decomposition (DD) methods. In addition to a fully parallel computation, the proposed lower bounds separate the algebraic error (due to the use of a DD iterative solver) from the discretization error (due to the FE), which enables the steering of the iterative solver by the discretization error. These lower bounds are also used to improve the goal-oriented error estimation in a substructured context. Assessments on 2D static linear mechanic problems illustrate the relevance of the separation of sources of error and the lower bounds' independence from the substructuring. We also steer the iterative solver by an objective of precision on a quantity of interest. This strategy consists in a sequence of solvings and takes advantage of adaptive remeshing and recycling of search directions.

#### SWIFT: Using task-based parallelism, fully asynchronous communication, and graph partition-based domain decomposition for strong scaling on more than 100,000 cores | 2016

**Matthieu SchallerPedro GonnetAidan B. G. ChalkPeter W. Draper**

We present a new open-source cosmological code, called SWIFT, designed to solve the equations of hydrodynamics using a particle-based approach (Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics) on hybrid shared/distributed-memory architectures. SWIFT was designed from the bottom up to provide excellent strong scaling on both commodity clusters (Tier-2 systems) and Top100-supercomputers (Tier-0 systems), without relying on architecture-specific features or specialized accelerator hardware. This performance is due to three main computational approaches: (1) Task-based parallelism for shared-memory parallelism, which provides fine-grained load balancing and thus strong scaling on large numbers of cores. (2) Graph-based domain decomposition, which uses the task graph to decompose the simulation domain such that the work, as opposed to just the data, as is the case with most partitioning schemes, is equally distributed across all nodes. (3) Fully dynamic and asynchronous communication, in which communication is modelled as just another task in the task-based scheme, sending data whenever it is ready and deferring on tasks that rely on data from other nodes until it arrives. In order to use these approaches, the code had to be re-written from scratch, and the algorithms therein adapted to the task-based paradigm. As a result, we can show upwards of 60% parallel efficiency for moderate-sized problems when increasing the number of cores 512-fold, on both x86-based and Power8-based architectures.

#### Space-time domain decomposition for advection-diffusion problems in mixed formulations | 2016

**Thi-Thao-Phuong HoangCaroline JaphetMichel KernJean E. Roberts**

This paper is concerned with the numerical solution of porous-media flow and transport problems , i. e. heterogeneous, advection-diffusion problems. Its aim is to investigate numerical schemes for these problems in which different time steps can be used in different parts of the domain. Global-in-time, non-overlapping domain-decomposition methods are coupled with operator splitting making possible the different treatment of the advection and diffusion terms. Two domain-decomposition methods are considered: one uses the time-dependent Steklov--Poincar{\'e} operator and the other uses optimized Schwarz waveform relaxation (OSWR) based on Robin transmission conditions. For each method, a mixed formulation of an interface problem on the space-time interface is derived, and different time grids are employed to adapt to different time scales in the subdomains. A generalized Neumann-Neumann preconditioner is proposed for the first method. To illustrate the two methods numerical results for two-dimensional problems with strong heterogeneities are presented. These include both academic problems and more realistic prototypes for simulations for the underground storage of nuclear waste.

#### Stochastic domain decomposition for the solution of the two-dimensional magnetotelluric problem | 2016

**Alexander BihloColin G. FarquharsonRonald D. HaynesJ. Concepcion Loredo-Osti**

Stochastic domain decomposition is proposed as a novel method for solving the two-dimensional Maxwell's equations as used in the magnetotelluric method. The stochastic form of the exact solution of Maxwell's equations is evaluated using Monte-Carlo methods taking into consideration that the domain may be divided into neighboring sub-domains. These sub-domains can be naturally chosen by splitting the sub-surface domain into regions of constant (or at least continuous) conductivity. The solution over each sub-domain is obtained by solving Maxwell's equations in the strong form. The sub-domain solver used for this purpose is a meshless method resting on radial basis function based finite differences. The method is demonstrated by solving a number of classical magnetotelluric problems, including the quarter-space problem, the block-in-half-space problem and the triangle-in-half-space problem.

#### Improved non-overlapping domain decomposition algorithms for the eddy current problem | 2016

**Y. BoubendirH. HaddarM. K. Riahi**

A domain decomposition method is proposed based on carefully chosen impedance transmission operators for a hybrid formulation of the eddy current problem. Preliminary analysis and numerical results are provided in the spherical case showing the potential of these conditions in accelerating the convergence rate